If you’ve got any interest in cars (and you probably do – or else how did you stumble across this site!) then you will have likely come across the term JDM.
But what does JDM mean when it comes to cars?
In this short article, we are going to cover the origins and meaning of the term JDM.
At Garage Dreams we are massive fans of Japanese cars. We are also big fans of Japan and Japanese culture (in fact, our editor in chief currently lives in Japan, having trekked all the way from New Zealand).
Let’s take a look at the meaning and history of JDM.
What Does JDM Stand For
JDM stands for Japanese Domestic Market.
Long story short, JDM refers to any vehicle that was produced for the Japanese domestic vehicle market.
A common misconception is that JDM refers to any Japanese produced vehicle. This is not correct – JDM specifically means a vehicle that was produced with the intent of being sold in Japan, and not outside of the country.
This can be a bit confusing to get your head around, as we will cover in the next section.
Are All Japanese Cars JDM?
As we mentioned above, not all Japanese cars are JDM. However, there is a popular misconception (especially in the United States) that JDM does just refer to any Japanese manufactured vehicle.
There are many Japanese cars that where produced for the US, European and rest of world markets (often referred to as USDM in the States). Just being manufactured in Japan does not make a vehicle JDM.
For example, the Toyota Supra MKIV was available brand new in the United States with left hand drive, and some changes to specification to comply to US law. This made it a Japanese manufactured vehicle designed to be sold new in the US market – a USDM vehicle.
However, the Toyota Supra mkIV was also available as a vehicle produced new for the Japanese domestic market – with the JDM version having differences to the US version (beyond just left versus right hand drive). The JDM Supra, for example, was limited to 180 km/h – much as all Japanese vehicles of the time were in order to comply with domestic safety regulations.
As you can see, the distinction between JDM and Japanese car can get a little blurred when referring to vehicles that were available both in Japan and elsewhere, but with different specs. Perhaps it is useful to think of cars like the MKIV Supra as having USDM and JDM versions as opposed to a black/white JDM or not distinction.
Sometimes different names were given to the JDM versus USDM or rest of world market version.
For example, the Nissan 240SX as it was sold in the USA was actually a Nissan 180SX when sold in Japan (and they had totally different engine options). To compound matters, the 180SX was also sold outside of Japan as a 200SX … now you can see where the confusion about the meaning of JDM comes from.
There Are “True” JDM Cars
To further complicate matters, we must also consider the existence of what can only be described as “true” JDM vehicles.
These are cars that were never sold new outside of Japan.
Examples may be imported used or even new (as grey market imports) into other countries but a true JDM car was never intended to leave Japan to be sold new in a dealership elsewhere.
Many true JDM vehicles are “Kei” cars. Small, lightweight vehicles that are highly fuel efficient, which comply with a specific set of regulations around physical dimensions, engine size and power in order to afford the owner reduced road tax and insurance. In some parts of Japan, Kei car ownership also eliminates the need for the owner to prove that sufficient parking is available.
For example, the Honda N Box (which our editor in chief drives while in Japan) is an example of a true JDM car that is also a Kei car.
In fact, as of December 2019 the Honda N Box was the most popular new car sold in Japan for 28 consecutive months, with over 1.7 million examples sold since its introduction.
However, it is a car that most people outside of Japan will never have heard of.
There are also examples of larger true JDM vehicles that do not comply with the Kei standard.
For example, the Toyota Century is a JDM vehicle intended to serve as a replacement to luxury limousines from the likes of Mercedes Benz or BMW:
Is JDM Bad?
JDM cars can have a reputation (that is occasionally deserved) for not being as good as the domestic market version of a vehicle.
To demonstrate this point, we will use the New Zealand vehicle market.
Many vehicles in New Zealand (over half the fleet on the road) [@Ben check this stat] comprises of vehicles that were imported at some stage from Japan in used condition.
“New Zealand new” vehicles are often bought by fleet buyers, companies, or wealthier individuals/families. The average Kiwi will drive a car that is imported from Japan by a used car dealer (often the dealers will purchase or sell on consignment from larger importers).
These cars can vary anywhere from being relatively recent models, through to cars up to 10+ years old (the exact requirements of NZ’s import laws are – like most other countries – fairly arcane as there are exceptions for vehicles past a certain age, and other exemption categories too).
Many of these Japanese imports are JDM versions of cars that were also available new in New Zealand.
The JDM versions will often have inferior safety and equipment specifications to a New Zealand new version. Sometimes they will even have different names.
For example, the ‘Mazda Axela’ (a common sight on the roads here) was actually sold new in NZ as a Mazda 3. JDM spec Axelas often have different specifications to NZ-spec Mazda 3s, such as options for lower power engines (presumably to suit the Japanese buyer’s need for a car that complies with the requirements to enjoy lower road tax).
Japanese imports that were intended for sale domestically in Japan can sometimes have worse safety features than their NZ domestic market counterparts – a trend especially (and unfortunately) seen in less expensive, economy cars that make up the majority of our fleet.
Because Japan’s domestic market for cars is structured in a way to encourage high turnover of vehicles, different specifications are offered – partly because the Japanese buyer is likely to upgrade to better specs on a more frequent cadence.
Not All JDM Cars Are Sports Cars
We tend to think of JDM cars as being sports/performance vehicles, such as the Toyota Supra or Nissan R34 GTR.
However, there are many interesting, quirky examples of JDM motoring that were never built to go fast.
For example, the Nissan President is hardly the last word in performance – but how comfortable and enjoyable would it be to waft along in one of these JDM luxury barges?
Prices for desirable JDM performance vehicles have skyrocketed in recent years. Depending on where you live and the import laws, you may be able to pick up an interesting, exotic and enjoyable vehicle for a great price by exploring some of the ‘unsung heroes’ of JDM history.
For example, the writer of this piece owned at various points in his life two Mazda Sentias. These were the JDM version of the Mazda 929, with higher specification than what was sold new in other countries. Both of these cars were purchased for around $3000 NZD (less than $2000 USD). Chump change for what are great vehicles with plenty of comfort, pace and grace.
Conclusion – What Does JDM Really Mean?
To conclude, JDM really just refers to any car that was built to be sold only in the Japanese market.
There are “true” JDM cars that were simply not intended to be sold in any guise outside of Japan (which have now found their way into countries like the USA, UK, New Zealand, Australia and Canada due to used import availability and the rules/regulations of import legislation ).
There are also JDM vehicles that were sold elsewhere in a domestic version, often with different specifications to suit the local market.
All JDM cars are Japanese, but not all Japanese cars are JDM!
If you are based in New Zealand (where we are headquartered) then we suggest you have a chat to Tim from J Cars. There is nobody else we know with such a wealth of knowledge and passion for JDM vehicles – you can check out Tim’s current stock here, and he can also import to order (as well as help buyers from other countries source a JDM purchase). His blog is also worth reading for more info on JDM.